Prostate Cancer : Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .cancer stage and prognosis.

Category Malignancies | August 09, 2016 23:08

Contents:

  • Causes disease
  • Symptoms of prostate cancer
  • stages of the disease and the prognosis
  • Treatment of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer - a malignant disease that affects the prostate gland in men.Previously, the likelihood of its development was significantly higher in people whose age is more than 60-70 years old, now exposed to the disease, and men 45-55 years.

Causes disease

There are several reasons for the development of prostate cancer.Some of them have been proved by scientists, while others are merely conjectural, but help to identify risk among men who have increased the probability of occurrence of this disease.It is necessary to consider the main ones:

  1. Hormonal disorders.This is the main reason, which formed the background to a malignant tumor often.With age, any male hormonal changes occur, which is why the disease is more common in older people.Prostate tumor growth promoted by an increase in testosterone levels in the blood.The higher levels of the hormone, the disease
    progresses faster.
  2. Heredity.It was seen such regularity that men whose relatives have suffered from prostate cancer, is very high probability of occurrence of this disease.
  3. Malnutrition, in which a person uses a lot of animal fats and, at the same time, not enough fruits and vegetables in his diet.
  4. Some doctors believe that a vasectomy (dressing vas deferens, which is done to the man no longer had children) can also affect the ability of developing prostate cancer.But this is only an assumption that has not been proven.
  5. Chronic prostatitis.
  6. problems with the absorption of vitamin D.
  7. diabetes and obesity.
  8. Smoking.
  9. Bad ecology.
  10. work with cadmium (printing workers, welders, workers engaged in the production of rubber).
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Symptoms of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is dangerous because its development can occur almost asymptomatic, and the first signs of a man feels at the time when the tumor has metastasized to other organs.On the other hand, unlike other cancers organs, the danger lies in the fact that even a small tumor can already prostate metastasize.No wonder people until the last moment not aware of their illness.For small tumors imperceptible in the body, but it has already metastasized grow and develop.

What are the symptoms of this disease?

  1. Frequent urination.A man may be a sensation that his bladder is not completely emptied.It also has difficulty at the beginning of urination.In some cases, may even incontinence.
  2. Pain in the perineum and in the pubic area.This feature indicates that the tumor has grown into nearby organs.Next symptom only confirms these suspicions.
  3. blood in the urine or semen.
  4. weight loss, bone pain, low hemoglobin, swelling, problems with the lower limbs.All of these features are already signs of metastases.Usually at this stage the disease is difficult to do something to cure a person from the disease.Often, it is the symptoms of metastases are the first symptoms of prostate cancer, so people know about the disease too late.
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stages of the disease and the prognosis

development of prostate cancer at different stages

Like all other cancers, prostate cancer is stage 4, and the chance of complete recovery depends precisely on whether, at whatstage treatment is started.

At the first stage complete cure is possible with a probability of 100%, but the problem lies in the fact that at this stage of the disease a man does not feel absolutely no signs of disease, so the first step is gradually moving to the next.

second stage also has no special features, since the tumor is still small and does not go beyond the prostate.Typically, the second stage did not develop metastases, so the timely detection of the disease and treat it early cure rate is very high.Over 5 years to survive 100% of men who started treatment at this stage.

On third stage of the disease may have seen blood in the urine, pain in the perineum and in the pubic area, and other symptoms of tumor sprouting in the neighboring organs.About half the patients found metastases in the lymph nodes located in the pelvic region and the peritoneum.If a patient starts treatment at this stage, its chance of survival in the next 5 years is approximately 50%.

The fourth stage is the most dangerous and untreatable, as in this case, the tumor is very large and its metastases located in other organs and bones.Typically, the fourth stage of prostate cancer patient can live 1-3 years.In some cases a little more.

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Treatment of prostate cancer

As mentioned above, the success of the treatment of the disease depends on how the tumor is detected early.Therefore, each man must at least once a year to be screened at the urologist, to provide themselves with timely treatment in case of illness.Prostate cancer is treated in several ways:

  1. Surgery.When such an operation is completely removed the entire prostate gland, along with the seminal vesicles.Typically, this method of treatment is used in the event of detection of disease in the early stages, until the tumor has not metastasized to other organs and bones.In the presence of metastatic prostate removal does not help to save the patient.
  2. Treatment of hormonal agents.Since the rate of tumor growth depends on the level of testosterone in a man, trying to reduce this level by means of suitable preparations.As a result of this treatment, tumor growth slowed down, but the constant use of hormonal agents also adversely affects the health of the patient.Many such treatment causes high blood pressure, heart attacks, stroke, embolism, circulatory failure and other side effects.Usually, long-term treatment with hormonal agents is prescribed only in case of problems with urination and pain in the bones, when the doctor knows that metastases have spread to the bones and other organs.
  3. Radiotherapy.As well as hormone therapy, it does not completely eliminate the cancer but suspends its tumor development and metastasis.In this type of treatment for prostate region is irradiated with radioactive rays.However, not only irradiate the prostate cells, so the harmful effects of radiation on cells occurs and healthy organs.This increases the likelihood of developing the irradiated normal cells of malignant tumors.In recent years, doctors have adopted the implantation of radioactive substances inside the tumor.In this case, it is exposed to radiation and prostate survival prognosis is significantly increased.Often radiation therapy used in conjunction with hormonal therapy to enhance the effect.
  4. Chemotherapy.Generally, chemotherapy is carried out when no operation or radiotherapy can no longer cope with metastatic spreading.In such situations, the patients underwent a course of chemotherapy to using special drugs to slow down the growth of metastases.

Conclusions

Prostate cancer - a disease that can develop even though for a long time, but even the smallest prostate tumor can give metastases and significantly reduce the chances of recovery.

Factors influencing the likelihood of developing this disease are divided into those that depend on the person's lifestyle, and factors are independent of it.If heredity, diabetes and hormonal disorders to fight hard, you live a healthy lifestyle, do not work in hazardous occupations and to try to move more can one man.

Do not rely on the fact that young men do not suffer from prostate cancer.Due to the bad environment the age of the disease has decreased significantly, so prevention must be examined for each individual male is not less than 1 time per year.

Any problems with urination and pain in the perineum and pubis should immediately suggest a visit to the urologist.Timely examination and early treatment will significantly increase the chance of recovery and further fulfilling life men.