- Causes hydrocephalus
- Types of hydrocephalus
- Diagnosis and treatment
When the accumulation in the brain of excessive amounts of fluid, which prevents the normal functioning of the body, say hydrocephalus, or dropsy of the headbrain.The presence of excess fluid threatens to increase the pressure on the brain tissue, which are beginning to press against the skull.If this process is not timely diagnosed and begin treatment, the patient may die.The disease is most often congenital, but it does not mean that they can not get sick in adulthood.Successful healing depends on how amazed brain, what developed symptoms related abnormalities and hydrocephalus.
disease most common signs of the disease are headache, nausea and vomiting, vision problems (inability to focus on a certain subject, ghosting, blurred boundaries), the change in the eyeball position (they seemed to shifted down, the pupil is also a bit 'sinks"creates the effect of" rolling of eyes "), with the vestibular system problems (loss of coordination in space, the precariousness and uncertainty of gait), clumsiness, lack of strength, loss of memory, confusion of consciousness, incontinence, excessive nervousness, irritability, and sometimes - drowsiness.Dominance of certain features depends on the cause of the disease.For example, people in old age there is normal pressure hydrocephalus caused by age-related changes of the body.It is expressed primarily in the state of infringement of coordination of movements, occurrence of forgetfulness, slowness in thinking operations, slow response to stimuli.
One of the brightest signs of hydrocephalus in adults - a psychological disorder.They can manifest as emotional stupor, seizures, lethargy, depression, hallucinations, mania, delirium.
The brain is a soft mass, enclosed in the skull to protect against external damage.To maintain the normal state of the brain in the cranium has cerebrospinal fluid liquid which fills the cavity (ventricles) in the depth of the brain.By ventricles cerebrospinal fluid passes through a network of channels and vessels, and then falls into the closed cavity, and is absorbed by the blood flow there.If the production of liquid, its circulation and absorption are in equilibrium (that is, to maintain normal pressure), then the person does not feel any discomfort.If one of these parameters is changed, then it affects the general circulation of the fluid in the ventricle.
In normotensive hydrocephalus the fluid pushes through the expansion of the ventricles - then the total pressure is possible to keep normal, but suffer some brain function.In some cases, normal pressure hydrocephalus is the result of injury, but in most cases the etiology is unclear.
reason hydrocephalus may be complications in certain diseases, for example, it can develop after a stroke, after the onset of intracerebral tumor.to the content ↑
Types of hydrocephalus
- occlusive hydrocephalus - in this case, a liquid can not function properly disease because the course is blocked or a blood clot or a tumor compressed;
- communicating hydrocephalus - fluid normally passes through the channels, but there are problems with its absorption into the blood stream;
- hypersecretory hydrocephalus - excessive production of cerebrospinal fluid.
Diagnosis and treatment
In adults, diagnosis begins with the collection of data on the general state of health, as well as neurological examination performed.The next stage - imaging (computed or magnetic resonance).Using it on the scanner screen, you can get a brain image and reveal hydrocephalus or other pathology that caused the symptoms.
If the disease is able to detect at an early stage, doctors have resorted to medication.Used drugs such as Asparkam, Aktovegin, Cavintonum, Diakarb, Gliatilin, Mannitol Mannitol, Tserebrokurin.
If the disease has already started or is progressing rapidly, ie the need for surgical intervention.Previously applied bypass surgery - catheter insertion tube and that contributed to the outflow of fluid and therefore normalization of intracranial pressure.However, the negative method is that large shunts can not be inserted, and the shunts with a small diameter are easily damaged (bend, clogged).At the same time replacement shunt should pass immediately, otherwise the patient may die.When properly selected shunt and timely change in its forecast in more than sixty percent of patients with a favorable, a considerable number of cases it is possible to eliminate the most severe symptoms, and fatality rate is about seven percent.
At the present stage of development of medical technologies and treatments for neurological diseases established method of operating neuroendoscopic hydrocephalus.At the moment, it is often used in Western countries, but in the territory of the former Soviet Union it is not very common because of the high cost of equipment and the lack of specialists in this field.Operation is quick and low-traumatic.The brain channels introduced a tool at the end of which is fixed camera - Neuro.On the big screen, physicians can monitor the entire course of the operation.Special catheter at the bottom of the third ventricle creates a hole that connects with extracerebral tanks.It is here and liquor flows, and hence a threat to human life disappears.to the content ↑
To avoid becoming a victim of the disease, should be aware of security - always cover their heads with a specific work, to use helmets when riding a motorcycle, timely detection and until the end of cure infectious inflammatory diseases, not supercool the head.