- reasons atrophy
- Classification atrophy and symptoms
- Diagnostics atrophy of the optic nerve atrophy treatment
atrophy of the optic nerve belongs to a class of serious ophthalmic diseases associated with a decrease in the patient's visual function.The disease can have different causes and nature of the course and consequences.To avoid the negative prognosis of the disease and prevent its development, you must know and follow preventive measures to prevent the development of disease.
optic nerve (Latin Nervus opticus.) - This is the second (II) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves.According to it, the visual stimulus perceived by the retina cells are transmitted to the brain.
atrophy of the optic nerve - is the process of the withering away of nerve fibers (full or partial) replacement of connective tissue.Also, there is obliteration of the capillaries that feed the optic nerve.To date, the disease has no age, it can develop in both adults and children.The origin and
Usually atrophy is a consequence of the transferred or occurring diseases.However, the disease can and is hereditary.Thus, the main causes of atrophy are:
- Eye diseases (vascular retinal diseases and optic nerve, multiple neuritis, glaucoma, pigmentary degeneration of the retina)
- Intoxication (quinine, nicotine and other drugsfunds)
- alcohol poisoning (more precisely, the surrogates of alcohol)
- Viral infections (ARI, influenza)
- Pathology of the central nervous system (brain abscess, syphilitic lesion, meningitis, cranial trauma, multiple sclerosis, tumors, syphilitic defeat skull injury, encephalitis)
- Hypertensive heart disease
- Profuse bleeding
Classification atrophy and symptoms
classify types of optic nerve atrophy as follows:
- simple (primary) and secondary (poslevospalitelnaya or poslezastoynaya) atrophy
- partial and complete atrophy
- stationary and progressive atrophy
- unilateral and bilateral atrophy
Symptoms of optic nerve atrophy is different and depends on the type of atrophy.The major symptom of all types of atrophy is a decrease in visual acuity.However, in each case, the syndrome is defined differently.
for permanent atrophy of the deterioration of vision at some point stops.Vision ceases to deteriorate.In the case of progressive atrophy of visual function reduction process occurs gradually and can lead to total atrophy of the optic nerve, i.e.to complete blindness.The processing time depends on the individual case, it may last from several days to several months.
If we talk about the very nature of visual impairment, it may be different.More often than not there is a change in the direction of the visual field constriction.A person can develop a so-called "tunnel vision", as if a person looks at the world through a straw.In this case, we can talk about the defeat of peripheral nerve fibers.
changes field of view depends on the location of the pathological process.It is also possible the emergence of the so-called "cattle" or dark spots.If such spots appear right before your eyes, the loss of nerve fibers occurred, most likely, in the central department of the retina or in close proximity thereto.
If lost half of the visual field (nasal or temporal), we can speak of a deep lesion of the optic nerve.The above changes may be manifested in one or both eyes.to the content ↑
diagnosis of optic nerve atrophy
If to see a doctor, you had the preliminary diagnosis "optic atrophy", you urgently need to undergo a full diagnostic study to set the exact diagnosis.Also, you may need consultation of Neurology, Neurosurgery, ENT, toxicology, infectious diseases, oncology.
comprehensive eye examination includes:
- Testing visual acuity
- Conducting computer perimetry.This type of survey will help determine which parts of the optic nerve pathology shows.
- craniography or x-ray of the skull
- Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.Conducting this research will help to determine the cause of the atrophy of the optic nerve
- diagnostics, fundus (carried out using special drops, inspection is carried out through the pupil of the patient)
- Carrying videooftalmografiya.The procedure to determine the nature of the lesion of the nerve
- sferoperimetrii procedure allows to evaluate the field of view of the patient
- possibility of holding Doppler
- Diagnostics correctness of color
atrophy of the optic nerve is dangerous because the destroyed nerve fibers can not be reversed.The effect of the treatment may only be viable from the recovery operation at the time of treatment of the fibers, but in the process of destruction.If you miss the opportunity to restore more functioning fibers, the vision of the patient can be lost forever.
As often optic atrophy is a consequence of pathological processes, the treatment should be started with the removal of the cause of the atrophy.A favorable outlook, in the case of timely elimination of the causes of the disease, is to normalize the pattern of the fundus and the recovery of the patient.By the time it may take from two weeks to three months.
So important is the identification (if it was not known), and treatment of the underlying disease that caused the atrophy.In parallel with this treatment, immediately at the optic nerve atrophy appointed injections, eye drops, tablets, electrophoresis.
- Appointed biogenic stimulators (vitreous, aloe, etc..), Amino acids (glutamic acid), adjuvants (Siberian ginseng), vitamins (B1, B2, B6, Ascorutinum) for:
following actions are performed in the treatment of optic nerve atrophystimulate recovery altered tissue, as well as to improve the metabolic processes are assigned
- prescribe vasodilators (no-spa, diabazol, papaverine, Sermion, trental, zufillin) - to improve blood circulation in the blood vessels that feed the nerve
- to maintain the central nervous system are appointedfezam, emoksipin, nootropil, cavinton
- to accelerate resorption of pathological processes - pirogenal, preduktal
- Appointed hormones for relief of the inflammatory process - dexamethasone, prednisone.
doctor will be the best course of treatment, taking into account the concomitant atrophy disease.Also possible methods to combat atrophy of the optic nerve are acupuncture, physiotherapy.Effective methods are considered laser, electrical and magnetic stimulation of the optic nerve.Usually, the patient's course of treatment is repeated a few months later.
If treatment is also worth paying attention to the patient's diet.It should be varied and nutritious, the menu must be present fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meat, cereals, liver.to the content ↑
As preventive measures are the following:
- Consultation with a specialist in case of doubt in the visual acuity of the patient
- Early treatment of diseases that can cause the development of optic nerve atrophy
- Warning different types of intoxication
- Ensuring blood transfusion with profuse bleeding
atrophy of the optic nerve - a serious disease.At the slightest lowering of the patient should consult a doctor, so as not to miss the time required to treat the disease.In the absence of treatment, and progressive atrophy, vision may disappear altogether, and restore it will not be possible.It is necessary to identify the reasons that led to the development of the optic nerve atrophy, remove it promptly.No treatment is not only dangerous to the loss of vision.It can lead to death.I would also like to note the low efficiency, and in some cases dangerous atrophy treatment folk remedies.