- Variety, forms and degrees of children's myopia
- Causes myopia
- How to recognize a child's myopia
- Treatment of myopia
- Prevention of myopia
According to WHO, today is quite a significant percentage of the child population suffers from myopia.Most likely, this is due to the progress of modern electronic technology.Today's children spend more time in front of computer screens, TV screens and tablets, rather than a walk in the fresh air, playing with peers in mobile games.
Myopia (or myopia) is a pathology of the eye, in which the patient barely begins to distinguish objects located at a distance.This is because the parallel light rays from distant objects are focused not on the retina, and in the area in front of it.As a result, it lost visual sharpness.Usually, the reason for this is the elongation of the eyeball (axial myopia), leading to an incorrect light refraction, and hence to image blur.
Variety, forms and degrees of children's myopia
Myopia may be congenital in nature, when a child at birth has been a violation of ocular refraction.It is characterized by slight changes in the fundus and stability, although there have been cases where such myopia progressed.
also happen and hereditary myopia, usually occurs between 1-12 years in about 50% of children with myopic parents.
There is also a form of acquired myopia is manifested usually in 7-16 years of age, and associated with unsuitable conditions for visual work.
In addition, different myopia:
- strong (& lt; 6 diopters) degree,
- average (3-6 diopters) degree,
- weak (& gt; 3 diopters) degree.
Myopia can be of two types:
- Progressive - permanently reduced vision, sometimes by several diopters per year.
- Stationary - blurred vision stops at a certain index and is no longer deteriorating.
Myopia can develop in children for many reasons:
- hereditary factor. Studies indicate that myopia is inherited is not transmitted, inherited a predisposition to it.As a rule, a child, a parent who suffers from myopia, also risks to get it.But if both parents are nearsighted, the probability of disease development in a child even greater.Such children are in need of attention from an ophthalmologist.
- Congenital underdevelopment. Often children are born with various pathologies of the lens or cornea (sclera or accommodative weak eye muscle), and some even have a congenital glaucoma.All these anomalies are quite capable to provoke myopia development.
- Prematurity. According to statistics, more than a third of premature infants found myopia.
- excessive visual load .The child is to focus on near objects view (monitor page of the book and so on.) Have to reflexively strain some eyes departments.Regular long-term stress leads to changes in the shape of the eyeball, and therefore to myopia.
- Infections and chronic diseases .Observations show that nearsightedness often develops in the presence of any disease.These include diseases of the mouth and throat (adenoids, sinusitis, tonsillitis and so on.), Infectious and allergic diseases (scarlet fever, measles, tuberculosis, diphtheria, infectious hepatitis, etc.), Diabetes, frequent respiratory diseases, rickets, scoliosis, etc..
- Wrong diet. disadvantage diet child elements such as zinc, calcium, magnesium, and vitamins leads to the development of myopia.
- Incorrect conditions during the visual work. This refers to a violation of posture, reading in riding transportation, inadequate lighting of the workplace, properly chosen for the baby furniture.
- Immunosuppression. practice shows, the presence of even a few of these factors do not necessarily lead to myopia.Typically, it begins in children ill, weak, low immunity.
How to recognize a child's myopia
Children do not always understand that their eyesight began to deteriorate.Therefore, parents should be careful yourself.You have to alert following the child's behavior:
- Frequent complaints of headache
- Fast fatigue when reading
- Rapid blinking
- Too close brings to the eyes book
- often rubs his eyes
- narrows his eyes when watching TV
- bow lowwhen drawing or writing
- tries to stay close to a TV
treatment of myopia
primary task in the treatment of myopia is to stop the fall of vision and its correction.First ophthalmologist selects the necessary points that will help the patient to correct eyesight and remove excessive voltage from the eye.Depending on the degree of myopia glasses should be worn all the time, or only occasionally (when you need to look into the distance).Students can replace glasses contact lenses.
Drug treatment of myopia include vitamin-mineral complexes (Vitrum Vision, okuvayt lutein and so on.), Calcium supplements, nicotinic acid.Typically, doctors prescribe emoksipin, menadione, Ascorutinum, trental, ditsinol.These drugs improve blood circulation eye.
addition, doctors are advised to eat a balanced way, to reduce visual strain, to spend more time in the air, do regular exercises for eyes (squinting, circular movements, frequent blinking, pressing and so on.).
Prevention of myopia
best to prevent child myopia than fight it.Therefore, parents should be from an early age children to instill the correct visual habits:
- correct posture at the table.
- Proper lighting for reading, writing, drawing, and others.
- Book or book should be no closer than 35 cm from the eye.
- can not read lying down.
- If desired visual load interruptions for at least 20 minutes.
addition child's diet should be rich in vitamin A, in the spring and autumn season, it is desirable to give the child complex vitamins.It is necessary to minimize the time watching TV and playing on the computer.Children should spend more time in the fresh air, exercising physical activity.It should therefore be more likely to take the child out of the city (to the country, into the woods to pick mushrooms and berries, and so on. D.)