- Classification and causes
- disease Symptoms of cataract Treatment of cataract
Cataract - a disease which is characterized by a gradual clouding of the lens, loss of transparency, thereby reducing visual acuity.In most cases, the disease occurs in the elderly and is the result of age-related changes.
pathology name comes from the Greek word meaning "waterfall".It is connected with the fact that the ancient Greek physicians believed cataracts result of draining turbid liquid substance in the space between the lens and the iris.
Cataract refers to chronic diseases.Occurring when it changes are irreversible.
development of pathology
lens of the eye in its essence - a transparent optical lens that changes shape for optimal concentration of light rays on the retina.The dev
As a result, the lens becomes thick and loses its transparency.Light rays begin to penetrate through it only in small quantities, so that the image loses clarity, as if blurred.Patients see things as if through a misted glass.
Classification and causes of the disease
Cataract can be unilateral or bilateral.On the basis of the severity of what is happening in the lens of the pathological process distinguish the stage of disease:
Cataracts may be congenital or acquired.
To develop congenital cataracts result:
- hereditary diseases;
- fetal infection in utero;
- use a pregnant woman drinks alcohol or drugs.
cause of acquired cataracts are most often:
- age-related changes occurring in the lens - in this case we are talking about so-called senile cataract;
- eye injuries - traumatic cataract;
- surgeries on the eyes;
- effects of electromagnetic, ultraviolet, or radiation (radiation kind of disease);
- bad habits: excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking;
- high light intensity;
- receiving glucocorticoids for a long time;
- genetic predisposition (presence of the disease in one or more of the next of kin).
Cataracts often develops on the background of some diseases.In this case we speak of a secondary form of pathology. most often cataract decreased vision occurs in the presence of:
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- high blood pressure;
- chronic infectious diseases.
Pathology also classified on the basis of the specific localization of foci clouding on the lens, depending on where the cataract is divided into:
Symptoms of cataract
Typically, cataract affects both eyes.However, the first change affects one eye.Visual acuity in the early stage of actually remains unchanged.
For the initial stage of the disease is characterized by the following features:
- periodically clarity is lost;
- appears blurred vision;
- items can be double (mainly in the second eye closed);
- sometimes the image becomes yellowish;
- sight appear flashes of light, glare (particularly at night), there are flies, spots;
- reduction in contrast between the background and the letters leads to difficulties in reading;
- weakened perception of color;
- around lights halo appears;
- night vision deteriorates;
- viewed items may be perceived distorted;
- increased sensitivity to bright light;
- there are difficulties in the selection of points, because the vagueness of the nebula and not amenable to spectacle correction.
initial period lasts from 1 to 3 years, although in some cases it reaches 10-15 years.
As the disease progresses, it reaches an advanced stage. Thus the following symptoms begin to appear:
- reduced visual acuity, and this is not due to the increased load on the eyes;
- appears constant feeling of mist before his eyes;
- in many cases, develop myopia;
- have difficulty with reading;
- develops sensitivity to light;
- distant objects become difficult-;
- observed lightening pupil: it becomes gray, grayish-white or milk (normal should be black).
For late stage cataracts are characterized by a complete loss of the objective of maintaining sensitivity.to the content ↑
Treatment of cataract
There are several ways to treat cataracts.
1. the early stages of prescribed medication. widely used vitamin eye drops (containing vitamins A, B, C, PP), amino acids, antioxidants, glutathione, cysteine, ATP vitayodurol, oftan-Katahrom, kvinaks.However, it should be borne in mind that the turbidity of the lens is an irreversible process.Applied drugs can only slow down the progression of the disease, but they can not stop it or reverse.
2. At the initial stage of a good result can also be achieved by using physiotherapy devices.Their action is aimed at regulating the blood circulation and metabolic processes in the anterior segment.The main advantages of these devices are:
- almost complete absence of contraindications and side effects;
- rendering complex influence;
most popular device are goggles Sidorenko.
3. To date, the only radical method of treatment is surgery.
operation consists of two stages:
- First, the lens is removed, and the capsule is retained.
- II: made of artificial lens implantation - intraocular lens (IOL).
Spend three types of surgical procedures:
- ultrasonic phacoemulsification;
- intracapsular removal of the lens;
- extracapsular removal of the lens.
most frequently performed operations is phacoemulsification. It is acknowledged by leading experts most effective way to treat cataracts.The procedure differs atraumatic, a high degree of safety and is absolutely painless.For its implementation is not necessary to perform a large incision and stitches.
first conducted dropping anesthesia, after which the cornea make micro-incision.Through it introduced a special substance that protects the structure of the eye from the damaging effects of ultrasonic irradiation.Thereafter, the incision is introduced in the probe tip through which the ultrasound disruption content damaged lens and thereafter emulsified in the suction condition.
decision to use self-sealing incision or the imposition of postoperative seams accepted specialist, depending on the specific situation.
In the absence of the need for suturing operation is greatly simplified, reduced rehabilitation period and the likelihood of complications.
The use of intraocular lenses, which are folding soft lenses provide maximum comfort and safety of the patient.
material for the manufacture of lenses is an inert plastic, which is not rejected by the body.The size and power of the lens is selected on an individual basis as a result of a thorough examination of the patient before surgery.
Due to the consistency of soft, flexible lens and folded her through micro-incision is introduced into the cavity of the lens capsule, where it crushes and restores shape and is fixed.