Eczema - a multifactorial chronic skin disorders,flows with characteristic erythematous-vesicular eruptions and inflammation of serous papillary layer of connective tissue of the skin, itching and focal intracellular edema in the thorny layer of the dermis.
According to experts, eczema occurs in people with a family history, as well as in patients with complex functional disorders of various systems and organs of the body.However, leading pathogenetic link at this stage consider violations that occur in the immune system.
The main causes of eczema include various internal and external stimuli.
exogenous (internal) factors provoke the development of pathological process, are diseases of internal organs.This disease of the digestive tract, metabolic disorders and diseases of the excretory system.
Exogenous factors include contacts of patients with a variety of chemicals, paints and solvents, cement, petroleum products, cosmetics and detergents, etc. At the same time provoke the development of the disease can be seasonal factors. Overheating, hypothermia and excessive sun exposure.An important role in the development of pathological processes play infectious pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, and various fungi, etc.).Also, eczema can occur due to neuropsychiatric surge and injury, stress and fatigue.May trigger the development of cutaneous lesions of the disease (mechanical and thermal) and some drugs.
With the development of the pathological process in the body develops immunity instead of sensitization, that is, it acquires an increased sensitivity to the specific foreign agents (allergens).At first she monovalent (one allergen), and then, together with the change in reactivity, it is polyvalent (to multiple allergens).
According to experts, the development of allergic reactions occur due to changes in the cell membranes.
Most experts are inclined to think that changes the reactivity of the skin, that is, to increase their sensitivity to certain stimuli (state before eczema), due not only neurogenic, and allergic mechanisms.Most likely, in the development of true eczema play a central role reflex influences, emanating from the internal organs, skin and central nervous system.And with the development of microbial or professional eczema - susceptibility to pathogenic bacteria, provoking the development of chronic infectious skin diseases, or to chemicals.
for acute forms of disease characterized by a rash of tiny bubbles on the flushed, slightly hydropic background.In clinical practice such rash called microvesicles.They are reminiscent of the air bubbles resulting from the boiling water (in a translation from Greek means ekzeo boil).
Microvesicles quickly opened, becoming a point of erosion.They are, like the drops of dew, is allocated serous exudate.Over time, the process gradually subsides, the bubbles become smaller, and the affected surface appears scaly defurfuration.Part microvesicles dries without opening, leaving a crust.
should be emphasized that eczema - a disease which is characterized by undulating course.Therefore, the affected dermal portion can simultaneously appear microvesicles, eczematous wells (erosion drip weeping), crusts and scales.Such a state is called evolutionary clinical polymorphism.It is the most characteristic feature of eczema.
However, with the expressed polymorphism is one of the morphological elements can prevail over the others, and therefore, clinicians distinguish the individual stages of the disease: weeping eczema, squamous, and a shell.
transition of the acute form of pathological process in chronic gradually.He is accompanied by the increase of infiltration (abnormal leakage of substances into the cell), seal the affected area of skin and lichenification (skin enhancement pattern).Also, at this stage of the disease active hyperemia becomes passive, that is, the skin become stagnant pronounced hue.Affected skin peels off, but at the same time, it may occur in small quantities microvesicles, point to erosion and crust.
for chronic forms of the disease are characterized by periods of relapse occurring with active hyperemia, rash and drip weeping.
Eczema - a disease which is always accompanied by itching, enhances an exacerbation of the pathological process.Eczematous lesions can vary in size, and their outlines are either sharply defined or do not have clear boundaries.
Solitary lesions of the skin with eczema in clinical practice is very rare.Typically, skin rashes, emerging at one site, quickly spread to other (sometimes affected the entire skin).
The earliest eruptions eczema appear on the back of the hands and face.It should be emphasized that the transition from the acute to the chronic form often last for years, and even in the course of treatment, the patient may appear new eczematous lesions.
This pathological process, which is characterized by the above symptoms.It can be located in any area of the skin, gradually acquiring a chronic course, and accompanied by the constant pruritus.
clinical picture of eczema in different localization of pathological process remains unchanged.However, as elsewhere, there are exceptions.On the palms and soles of the epidermal horny layer is much thicker than in other areas of the skin, and therefore in these sections is shown in eczema disgidroticheskoy form.
for this form of the disease characterized by the appearance of dense bubbles, the size of a small pea-like boiled sago grains.Due to the thickness of the epidermal layer on the palms and the soles of inflammatory skin coloring weakly expressed.Revealed the bubbles can be converted to erosion, or dry up, forming a flat yellowish crusts, which may coalesce into large multi-chamber formation.
If you have any further rash on the skin formed sharply limited lesions that have a distinct inflammatory coloring.On its background, new, smaller microvesicles, weeping erosions, crusts and scales.
The lesion at disgidroticheskoy eczema clearly separated from the healthy skin, and is often surrounded by his so-called "collar", which is flaking horny layer.In the period of acute outside there are new, sago seeds resemble bubbles.The lesion gradually increasing, can cover the backs of hands or feet.In such a situation develops characteristic clinical picture of eczema (rash microvesicles).
Sometimes patients disgidroticheskoy form of the disease appear on the nails transverse furrows.
Patients with chronic eczema soles and palms develops hyperkeratosis (mozolevidnaya eczema).
Mozolevidnaya eczema, hyperkeratosis, or a chronic form of eczema disgidroticheskoy, since only limited to the area of the palms and soles.Because of the thickened stratum corneum erythematous stage of the disease is expressed slightly, and instead of microvesicles appear on the skin and callosity areas of hyperkeratosis.
This form of pathological process is usually localized around the infected wounds, trophic ulcers, fistulas, abrasions or scratches.For it is characteristic of the formation ostrovospalitelnyh, large and krupnofestonchatyh sharply defined lesions with well-designed to tear away at the edges of the stratum corneum, which consists of residues of streptococcal conflict (small bubbles with serous content).On the surface eczematous foci apart from microvesicles and weeping erosions, there is a massive layering of purulent crusts.The pathological process is accompanied by severe itching.Generally, microbial eczema lesions are located in the lower extremities.
Nimmulyarnuyu eczema is considered to be a kind of microbial eczema.In this case, the formed body of the patient sharply defined lesions having a rounded shape, reach 1.5-3.0 cm in diameter and slightly elevated above the normal skin.Their surface is bluish-red color, with abundant drip weeping.Patchy eczema treated is very difficult and prone to relapses.
Almost 80% of cases, this form of eczema occurs in patients who have lesions found in the lipophilic yeast fungus Pityrosporum ovale.Also trigger the disease development can seborrhea and related neuroendocrine disorders.
itching and inflammation of seborrheic eczema insignificant border eczematous foci clear.Often pathological process spreads to the scalp and is accompanied by the appearance of dandruff.Hair in patients with seborrheic eczema greasy, dull and stick together.
Lesions in the development of this form of localized disease in the lower extremities.Varicose eczema - a condition that occurs in patients with varicose symptom (dermatosis, developing on the background of varicose veins).In this case, eczematous lesions are localized around the varicose ulcers, and in areas of sclerosis of the saphenous veins.To provoke this condition may be injured, and also increased the patient's sensitivity to prescribers.The clinical picture of varicose eczema is very similar to microbial and okoloranevoy eczema.
This form of pathological process occurs due to skin contact with a variety of industrial irritants.Most often it occurs in people working in the chemical industry, builders, hairdressers, nurses, and weavers.
In the early stages of the disease eczema lesions appear on exposed areas (palms, forearms, face and neck, at least - the leg and foot).Their boundaries sufficiently clear, the skin on the affected areas of edematous and hyperemic, and on its background there are microvesicles and nodules with drip weeping.Patients complain of very severe itching.After some time they develop symptoms characteristic of idiopathic eczema, and the pathological process extends to the areas of skin covered.It should be noted that after the cessation of exposure to the allergen professional eczema completely passes.
This form of pathology is diagnosed in patients suffering from sycosis (chronic relapsing inflammation of hair follicles), complicated eczematization.With the development of eczema sycosiform pathological process extends beyond the body hair and is accompanied by the formation of eczematous wells, severe itching and weeping.In the affected areas of the skin thickens, and it continually arise follicles.Most often eczematous lesions localized in the pubic area, armpits, upper lip and chin.
This disease is considered to be a kind of microbial eczema.As a rule, it develops when breastfeeding a child due to an injury, and may also be a complication of scabies.Eczematous lesions in this form of pathology have crimson color, sometimes they are covered with scales and crusts layering that constantly crack and get wet.
Baby Eczema - allergic disease, which develops most often in newborn infants with malnutrition in exudative diathesis and metabolic disorders.Typically, this form of disease is hereditary, and it can occur with varying intensity.
child often close relatives suffering from eczema, urticaria, allergic reactions to drugs or medicaments for foodstuffs, as well as asthma.
Often the transition from normal to high sensitivity to allergens occurs in utero, during their penetration of the placenta from the mother's body.
However eczema in children may develop chronic infection focal background, bronchial asthma, hay fever, gastrointestinal disorders, conjunctivitis and keratitis, as well as acute respiratory disease.
Note: in the development of eczema in early childhood is replaced by the term "exudative diathesis."
According to experts, exudative diathesis - is not a disease, but only the tendency to the disease because of a particular anomaly.This can be reduced resistance to infections, increased irritability of the skin and mucous membranes, a predisposition to the development of a pathological process.That is why very often exudative diathesis may occur without cutaneous lesions.
The basis of diagnosis of eczema is the clinical picture of the disease.Each patient with typical symptoms should be carefully and thoroughly examined.Particular attention is paid to the state of the nervous and endocrine systems, as well as metabolic nature.
However, of great importance in the diagnosis of eczema is the identification of allergens trigger the development of the pathological process.Microbiological research methods, allowing to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to antibiotics administered to patients with suspected development of microbial eczema.
In any case, before embarking on the treatment of eczema, you need to find out the true cause of its occurrence.After a visit to a dermatologist, most likely, the patient will need further consultation immunologist-allergist and a dietitian.
often assigned a comprehensive allergy and immunological study in elucidating the nature of eczema.
Treatment of the disease is carried out in the complex.It involves the use of detoxification and allergen products, reducing the body's sensitivity to the allergen, sedatives and drugs, corrective changes in the digestive tract.Also mandatory patient held vitamino- and immunomodulating therapy, and are appointed by corticosteroids and antibiotics
if necessary, however, in the treatment of eczema using physiotherapy techniques and tools for external therapy.
all patients suffering from eczema, shown split meals.The diet should include foods with a normal fat content and an increased amount of protein.In this situation, carbohydrates, as well as salt, are limited to a minimum.Essential foodstuffs are fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy purged.Very useful infusion of rose hips.
In the acute phase of the disease patients received anti-inflammatory, keratolytic agents and external agents with anti-itching effect.
patients suffering from neurotic disorders, recommended bromine and sedatives, as well as, in smaller doses, tranquilizers or neuroleptics.